ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND DATA PROTECTION
MEANING OF DATA PROTECTION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?
Artificial Intelligence is a concept used to define computer-related problems learned from their own experience. There has been rapid growth within Artificial Intelligence in recent times. We are currently embarking on a brand new venture that is certain to impact society. The concept is called Artificial Intelligence all started in the 1950s as a technology. It didn't have that huge impact in the past, and their requirements didn't satisfy due to a lack of exposure to technology. In the modern age of technology, everything is linked to technology. We use Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) to complete our work, i.e. it recognises the image and speech. For instance, if you are driving and they cannot make a call through the contacts list while driving. Therefore, he can triple-click the home button. Immediately to IPhone, Siri will appear and, if you speak to the mother, Siri will call the person with the mom's name on your contacts list. In the last few years, A.I. is now more science-based research and less fiction. The world of technology has changed rapidly thanks to the advent of computers and robots that can carry out basic human activities.
UNDERSTANDING ARTIFICIAL INTERNET AND FUTURE USAGES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - AI, ML, BIG DATA
Artificial Intelligence can change our lives, complete tasks and perform daily tasks. In 1950, Alan Turing proposed the "Turing test" to define an intelligent machine. In a paper published in 1987 by the scientist Roger C. Schank, one might expect an intelligent machine to include the following attributes that include communication, creativity, external and internal knowledge, and goal-driven behaviour. Artificial Intelligence is a two component concept, i.e. artificial intelligence and intelligence. Understanding artificial intelligence is a lot easier than comprehending intelligence. In the 1940s, McCulloch and Walter Pitts attempted to research A.I. using mathematical concepts. In his research paper "Computer Machinery and Intelligence", Alan Turing stated that if a computer passes the Turing test, then we could be able to call it intelligent. The Turing test comprises a judge (human being) and a computer. The Judge will ask the computer questions through the computer's terminal.
If the Judge constantly could not distinguish between the machine and the person, it's a sign that it can pass this Turing test. There are a variety of independent definitions of A.I. that different people formulate. One of them could be "Luger and Stubblefield in 1993 defined A.I. as follows; it is a branch of computer science concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour."
INDUSTRIAL SCOPE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - EVERYTHING ABOUT AI AND DATA PROTECTION - INDUSTRIAL AI
Artificial intelligence gathers the attention of the world's major tech companies like Facebook, Amazon, Google, and others. The major technology firms are involved in Artificial Intelligence. There are three major areas i.e. Artificial Intelligence enabler’s developers, developers, and their offerings and products. In the past, Merrill Lynch, which Bank of America bought in the year 2008, came out with a short overview of the advancements made by these top tech giants in this area. Bank of America officially introduced Erica, which is Artificial Intelligence. Erica assists customers in their banking through voice, gestures, and texts from Bank of America's app. Bank America app. In contrast, Amazon recently introduced Alexa.
Like Siri, Cortana and Alexa has also been created to respond to different requests of its users. It is a device powered by electricity built upon Artificial Intelligence and is built using natural speech processing. It can eventually complete tasks, including speech recognition. The most significant tool for A.I. is the ability to recognise speech. Alexa can respond to various requests, such as "Alexa, set the alarm", "Alexa, tell me the football score", and so on.
AI TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES - AI FOR INDUSTRY
GOOGLE - USE OF AI
Tensor Processing Unit, an ASIC designed to perform a variety of tasks in a system for learning.
AMAZON - HOW AMAZON CHANGES THE WAY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE WORKS
Amazon has machine learning capabilities that create a variety of patterns in the data already in use; in addition, it can predict new data.
INTEL - THE FUTURE STAKEHOLDER OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Xeon Phi is an item that addresses deep learning using an instruction set that is based on local solutions.
It comprises thousands of small cores specifically designed to handle many tasks at once.
DeepMind, Cloud Machine Learning
Artificial Intelligence Lab
COMPANIES WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PLATFORMS - AI COMPANIES
Amazon Echo and Alexa.
Google Voice Search, Google Photo and Google Assistant.
Facebook Learner Flow News Feed as well as Moments.
ADVANCEMENT IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, VIRTUAL ASSISTANCE, AUGMENTED REALITY AND VIRTUAL REALITY
Virtual assistance is time-based technology that interacts with people. Big companies like Apple, Microsoft and Google have been competing against each other in developing their own Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence on smartphones can detect your interests; they can tell what you want and learn your preferences, just like an artificial assistant. Apps like Siri from Apple Siri and Alexa from Amazon Alexa are virtual assistants, and Artificial Intelligence is a vague idea that includes a range of techniques like deep learning machine learning, machine learning and natural processing of languages. Virtual assistance is essentially an amalgamation of these technologies and is independent. They use "chatbots" these will reply to your inquiries and concerns. The first to gain attention worldwide was SIRI, built into every iPhone. At first, there was no significant growth or progress, but progressing after a series of changes and the company continues working on it has shown an impressive amount of progress. At the top of the line, the list is Google's A.I. that leads today compared to Siri. Virtual assistance could trigger real-time presence in the virtual worlds and physical reality.
THE LEGALITY OF ARTIFICIAL INTERNET AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - FUTURE OF AI
Artificial Intelligence has its own merits and drawbacks. The advantages are quite obvious, whereas the detriments are about the user's personal information. A.I. has come to the forefront of some of the most innovative and most significant advances for the sector of public administration. This raises various questions regarding the privacy of individuals, security, ethics, and legal accountability. In India, legislators have passed laws that apply to human and non-human entities and other artificial people. The legislature has not come to any guidelines for the legality, i.e. their rights and obligations, because Indian law has never recognised Artificial Intelligence as a legal person. After all, it cannot be treated as a natural person since it is not conscious or soul, interests, and feelings. There are arguments against giving A.I. the status of a legal entity.
The most important argument is that A.I. naturally cannot be accountable for its actions because it is entirely tech-based. If it violates or creates any liability, the company would be held responsible. Companies are known as being a pioneer in A.I. and are the perfect example of A.I. Businesses employ A.I. and can carry out their tasks with efficiency through A.I. by reducing man hours i.e. decreasing their human labour force. When employers employ A.I. and robotics to perform their duties promptly, they must adhere to their obligations following. Concerning how legal it is to utilise Artificial Intelligence in India, the law in India doesn't recognise A.I. as an official entity. According to Indian law, only a person deemed to be competent may sign contracts. Following the introduction of A.I. to this world, its technology has become more prevalent in our everyday life. There are many unanswered questions, including who is accountable for the damage caused by A.I.? To answer such questions, you must first be aware of the indefensibility that is our Indian Legal System.
There are legal concerns related to Artificial Intelligence, like generating large quantities of data. In the past, the United States of America had encountered several problems with data protection. A renowned law firm located in India in 2017 was the first law firm to sign a legally binding agreement with the Kira machine learning program that is Canada situated. The principal reason for the firms signing an agreement with Kira was to boost efficiency and increase the speed and accuracy of delivering legal services. The majority of firms and lawyers use the help of these software's to look over the documents for cases and draft contracts. However, technology can't substitute for lawyers and their intuition.
PROTECTION OF DATA AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - EXPLAINED
One of the main concerns with Artificial Intelligence is the protection of information. After the scandalous incidents of Cambridge Analytica and giant social media platform Facebook was revealed, major concerns about data security emerged. There are two main concerns. One is that in the event of a breach, who is responsible since there's nobody to intervene? Another issue is what we mean by an appropriate Data Protection framework in India. To address the first concern, yes, it's real that no human is being directly involved in the decisions that Artificial Intelligence puts forward. The next question is who is likely to be held accountable for the actions of Artificial Intelligence?
In the Supreme Court's ruling in K.S. Puttaswamy V. Union of India determined that the right to privacy is now essential. However, because of the no legislation in place to tackle these new issues, it is largely incomprehensible for a person who regularly loses their dignity in the digital realm. The other issue concerns the issue of Data Protection. In India, the legislation is called the Information and Technology Act, 2000, the sole piece of legislation that addresses this issue.
Additionally, some sections speak about data protection under the act i.e. Sections 72 and 43-A. Most of the data protection provisions were added as amendments. If there was a direct Human Artificial Intelligence intervention, the corporations could say, "We did not do, but Artificial Intelligence did it?" Then of was the Puttaswamy case was ruled on.
THE NATIONAL STRATEGY OF NITI AAYOG FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - GOVERNMENT OF INDIA INITIATIVE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
The National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog), under the supervision of the Government of India, has produced an Indian nation-wide Artificial Intelligence policy. NITI Aayog has also teamed in partnership with Google in May of 2018 to improve the productivity of India's economy to boost and educate start-ups looking to develop AI-based solutions. NITI Aayog, in its report, has said that A.I. is a possibility to increase growth through the facilitation of capital and labour expansion, intelligent automation, and the diffusion of innovation. A.I. may create positive change that will require the government to play a major role in education, transportation, smart cities, agriculture, and infrastructure; in the context of intelligent cities, A.I. assists in monitoring and can control crowd behaviour. A.I. can keep an eye on crowd behaviour and assist in all aspects of public safety if necessary.
The author of the article did not report it. It is not the norm; however, it is a notable instance. A few of the biggest challenges in adopting Artificial Intelligence in India have been identified in the report. It includes several suggestions for the development of Artificial Intelligence. The report also focuses on the progress and the adoption of Artificial Intelligence by the stakeholders and government agencies by cooperating and discussing security and privacy issues associated with Artificial Intelligence. The report offers suggestions on the best ways to deal with concerns concerning privacy, security, and ethics. It has suggested steps to take. In the end, the report speaks of "actions and visions of Government" and the role of the government in providing secure, safe and better living conditions for citizens. According to a news report, six tech giants collaborated with NITI Aayog, including Google, Microsoft, ABB, Intel, IBM and SAP.
SRI KRISHNA BILL OF THE COMMITTEE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
B.N. Sri Krishna has presented the report of its committee on Data Protection titled "A Free and Fair Digital Economy -- Protecting Privacy, Empowering Indians." The major points of the report are:
(A) PROCESSING PERSONAL DATA
They have made clear in the bill that data must be collected and used only for legal and specific reasons, and only the required portion of the information has to be taken. It could lead to misuse of data was made available to the user without their consent.
(B) TROUBLESOME EXEMPTIONS
The government can collect personal information to prevent crimes from occurring and prevent lawful violations. Personal data could be used through the government, for instance, when issuing licenses, services, etc.
(C) DATA LOCALISATION
All personal information must be kept in India only, and all critical data shall be stored on Indian servers. Data will be subject to transfer only following the model contract clauses.
(D) THE RIGHT TO BE NOT
There will be a restriction on the use of personal information when the purpose is fulfilled and the consent is taken away. Users have the right to confirmation regarding the information stored or disclosed to them.
(E) EXPLICIT CONSENT
Processing any personal data about a person requires consent from the individual, and without this consent, the government is not authorised to handle any data. Data includes "sensitive personal data" like biometric information, passwords, religious or caste information, financial information, as well as sexual orientation. For instance, if you've provided your sexual preference in a survey to determine the number of individuals, they cannot provide it to an advertising agency for them to send you any type of targeted advertisements since this is different from what you have agreed to.
(F) DATA PROTECTION AUTHORITY
It is a governing body created by the committee to ensure data protection and to oversee rights. If personal data was released without consent, then the authorities have the power to investigate the issue and take the necessary actions against data processors. The authority was set to protect against data misuse and safeguard the privacy rights of citizens. It has a variety of protections and obligations. The authority can conduct an inquiry and take actions against fiduciaries of data.
(G) RTI AMENDMENTS
Right to information is an Act that the Parliament of India passed. The primary purpose of this law is to empower citizens and increase transparency and accountability in the work structure of the government. Questions asked will be answered within a specified time. The new amendment was added to Section 8(1) (j) that states "there would be no obligation to reveal personal information which is not related to public activity or interest or would be an invasion of privacy." This amendment intends to ensure that harm is not caused to anyone else. There's a difference between seeking information from public servants for the sake of the public's interest and seeking to satisfy public information in the name of the public.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - AI ETHICAL ISSUES
In the current global economic environment, the need for copyrights, trademarks, patents, and industrial designs are growing, and the process is complicated. There are a variety of laws that could affect the operation of Artificial Intelligence in India, and they include:
There must be "creativity" for ownership of copyrights to obtain copyright. In India and other countries, the law demands that the work be eligible for protection of copyrights following the law. It states that it must first meet requirements for the "modicum of creativity". In Eastern Book Co. v. D.B. Modak, the court declared that only minimal creativity is required in the case and also the court ruled that "there shall be substantive variation and not merely a trivial variation." If it is about Artificial Intelligence to obtain copyright the technology should be placed within the purview of an author following the Copyright Act, 1957. Section 2(d) in the copyright law defines "author" to be "(VI) about any literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work which is computer-generated, the person who causes the work to be created." The more closely a person puts their efforts directly into or participates in the creation of that work, they'll be considered to be the creator of that work. According to the Indian copyright law, it is controversial to decide the works produced with the help of Artificial Intelligence. The problem is that Indian law did not recognise Artificial Intelligence as a legally recognised entity until recently.
(B) INDUSTRIAL DESIGN
Artificial Intelligence has progressed rapidly, and as it has advanced, high-tech companies such as Apple, Amazon, and IBM use their A.I., including Siri, Alexa, and Watson. They are researching intelligent and smart machines. Computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting are only designs and models. The issue that must be addressed is: when a design is created by an artificial entity, who will the original owner be considered? It is a question that remains unanswered, and I hope that the jurisprudence regarding the same area will develop slowly.
(C) PATENTS UNDER ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Section 6 in the Patent Act, 1970 states that patent will be granted following the law only to those persons the invention is first made or to any person designated. There is no requirement that the patent is developed only by natural persons, and thus, any invention produced by A.I. could also fall into this category. But, does it mean that natural persons create any patents created?
FAMOUS SCANDAL - ETHICAL AI
In June 2014, a researcher named Aleksandr Kogan developed a quiz application on Facebook. The app was created in the Cambridge University laboratory where he worked. About 270,000 users have downloaded the application. When using the app, Kogan gives users, and their family member’s access to it. It should have been removed when data was requested, but it was kept in a confidential database. Kogan provided information about fifty million Facebook users that were shared with the company that tracks voters, Cambridge Analytica. After Facebook learned of it, they removed the application from Facebook and demanded all its partners remove the information. The second aspect of the scandal concerns Trump. This scandal was exposed in March of 2018 by whistle-blower and former Cambridge Analytica Christopher Wylie. Facebook even banned Wylie for whistle-blowing, and it is something they've known about for the past two years. This was revealed by the British broadcaster Channel 4. They've employed 50 million users' information to run a micro-targeted political campaign during USA Presidential elections. Following this revelation, it was reported that the Indian Law Minister was warned by Mark Zuckerberg and made sure that there were no similar incidents in India. The government came up with strict privacy and data protection laws. The Congress party had earlier stated they believed BJP had links to the C.A. The whistle-blower, however, said that the Congress party was one of Analytica's customers.
AI helps with work and can complete tasks quicker than all human efforts. In the end, the number of individuals and companies on A.I. is growing. Data is the oxygen in the process of Artificial Intelligence. Digital technologies like Artificial Intelligence can make significant contributions to various areas. When we use these technologies, we are exposed to data belonging to other individuals who have consented. Each technology has its advantages and disadvantages. Sometimes, these technologies can be utilised against us from government agencies to corporations and even individuals. To combat the issues mentioned above, it is important to be aware of the technology and the way it impacts our lives and individual privacy. Every business must do their best to secure the information of individuals; because an individual loses trust in the business, it can be a public relations catastrophe.