DIVINE THEORY POL SCIENCE
THE DIVINE THEORY OF THE ORIGIN OF STATE – POLITICAL SCIENCE ONLINE
This theory was among the earliest theories about the genesis of our state. According to this theory, it is believed that the state was created by God the same way God created humans on earth, and he also created the state. The King was granted the authority to manage and oversee the citizens of The Divine Authority. This idea was employed to achieve different ends. It was used to convince the populace with the idea that the King had an obligation to God, and he is therefore bound to perform justice and must obey the law of the Scriptures. Despots used it to justify their absolute power and the rule of law. They believed that the King had the power to do whatever they wanted and that the public could not interfere since God gave authority to the King.
This idea was commonplace during the time of ancient times. Manu claims, "Brahman created the King to guard the people in every varna and Ashramas dedicated to their duty." Hindu philosophers believed that the state was an institution of God and that the state was a divine institution.
LAW NOTES – POLITICAL SCIENCE
Divine Theory of State was widespread throughout Europe in the context of Christian dogmas, particularly during the Middle Ages when the King was believed to be God's representative. God was ruled by divine authority. In the Bible, it states: "Let every soul be subordinate to greater powers. Because there is no power except that of God. God appoints the powers in the universe."
The Greeks have attributed a divine source to the government. According to Greeks, the state was a group of sages that gave the law. The Roman legend of the founding of Rome, but not forgetting the concept of religion, claimed that the King and people established the state. It was believed that the blessings from Gods were followed. In Muslim law, Sultan, or King, was seen as an image of God.
POLITICAL SCIENCE AND GOVERNMENT
The Divine Origin Theory increasingly evolved into the concept of the Divine Right of Kings, which was especially true in England's 16th and 17th centuries.
In the words of Gray, "The ruling spirits of society, when they form an administration, have frequently declared that they are under divine guidance. And this assertion has been believed not only by the vast majority of the population but also by rulers, and it is this belief that has granted them authority, however in these instances, it is the rule of the rulers who have arranged the state. The structure of the state was the same regardless of whether the leaders who made it received or did not receive an enlightenment from above."
POL SCIENCE NOTES
Gettell correctly states, "During the bulk of the history of mankind the State was seen as a direct creation of God and the government of it was theocratic in its nature." J.N. Figgis provides the basic principles of the Divine theory in the following manner:
- God gave the King political authority.
- The title of King is inherited.
- The King is a wonderful source of wisdom.
- It is sinful to rebel against the King.
- The people must submit in complete obedience to the King's authority.
- An unfaithful king is punished for being a bad King by God, but not his people or any human authority.
CRITIQUE OF THE THEORY
- The theory can be used as a justification for despotism rule and to justify the principles of democracy.
- It's not real.
- This isn't appropriate to the contemporary democratic States in which the citizens elect the presidents.
- It is not progressive because it does not grant the citizens the right to change the rule of law.
- There is no evidence from history to show that the divine power is the one who creates the state.
- It is a religious theory that is not founded on rationality.
This theory was used to force people to be submissive to the authority of the state to allow the state to be stable and prevent chaos. It was beneficial to enforce law and order and establish the rule of law. The reason for this is its importance to morality. It also provided an underlying religious foundation when religion played a significant role. It also created a sense of oneness among people.
THE NATURAL THEORY OF THE ORIGIN OF STATE
The natural theory states that the State concept results from a man's instinct. Aristotle declared that men are social creatures, and man's sociability creates the concept of state. The interests of a person and the state are identical. So, a man can't exist without the state. While this theory may not be enough to explain the genesis for the creation of the state but it provides the underlying reason for the creation, that is, the state's existence. Today the theory has been adapted into a real-world theory.
THE FORCE THEORY OF THE ORIGIN OF STATE – POL SCIENCE NOTES
The theory of force states that the state was created by physical coercion or the threat of war, the state. The theory was developed by Jenks, Bernhardi, Oppenheim and Treitschke.
Leacock states, "Historically, this (force theory) implies that the government was the result of human violence, and that the genesis of the state will be sought through the enslavement and capture of man by man during the subjugation and conquest of tribes that were weak and, more generally that it is a self-seeking power that was engendered by the superior force of physical force. The gradual growth of a tribe to kingdom and then from the kingdom to the empire is a continuation of this same pattern."
In the words of Jenks, "Historically speaking, there is no issue in the fact that all communities of the present era are a result of the success of combat." Waltair claims “that "the first King of England was a lucky soldier." Bluntschli believes the "force is an integral aspect of the functioning for the state."
COMPARATIVE POLITICAL STUDIES
Oppenheim outlines the six phases of the emergence of
- The first phase was one of the ongoing battles. The conquerors seized the property of the victim.
- In the next stage in the second stage, the peasants were forced into slavery, and the exploitation of men by the man was initiated.
- The third step was the realization of the mutual benefits of cooperation between conquerors and the defeated.
- People unite to fight common enemies.
- The government was established to resolve disagreements.
- The military's leaders were crowned Kings. Law and order were established, and the state was established.
It is thought that the state was developed by using the use of force. For instance, Alexander the Great expanded his kingdom solely through his use of force. Changez Khan Nadir shah, Akbar, Hitler, and Napoleon were also influenced by the same. In the second half of the late 19th century, an entire number of German theorists employed this theory to defend the power and force that the state had. They believed that the state had power, and force was the main characteristic that the state had. The individualists employed this concept to safeguard individual freedom by limiting the state's power, which is considered a necessary evil. The anarchists saw the state as a power-based institution and called for its early abrogation for the sake of society.
The theory of force, without doubt, is a source of truth. However, force isn't the sole factor contributing to the evolution of the state. Other factors like family kinship or religion, property, and political awareness have all played a role in the development of the States. Force alone cannot sustain the state for an extended period. "Might without rights can be, at the very least, temporary, but might when coupled with the right is the permanent foundation of the state. The force does not create rights. Rights, similar to the state, are rooted in the collective consciousness of common interests."
According to Green, "It is not coercive power, as such however, it is coercive power that is exercised in accordance with the law, either written or not, to ensure the maintaining the rights that exist from both internal and external threats that make the State."
Gilchrist states, "Might without right lasts only for as long as they may last. But might with right lasts as long in the same way as human minds upon which it is based."
MacIver says that nothing is possible with force, as force will always cause disruption when it is subservient to the common good. Force can be short-lived.
Abraham Lincoln remarks, "Force is all-powerful, however its victories are not long-lasting."
The force theory advocates believe that force is the purpose and motivation of the state. The state must be robust to defend its citizens from the aggressions of others and maintain its citizens' peace and security. Only force can't mean anything or justify the authority of the state.